Deciphering the ideographic figure of the black bull in the Lascaux cave

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This article will decipher the ideographic figure of the black bull in the Lascaux cave. This deciphering was carried out using the proto-Sumerian ideographic language and its associated languages, Sumerian and hieroglyphic. This article is one of ten deciphering examples taken from the book “Deciphering the language of caves” that illustrate in concrete terms the fact that the pairs of animals and signs identified by archaeologists and dated to the Upper Palaeolithic actually correspond in every respect to the protosumerian ideographic language, the oldest known ideographic language.

Table of contents



This article is an excerpt from the book also available on this site:

Volume 2 Book 2 Deciphering the language of the caves

You can also find this book here :

Already published books

To find out why this book is part of the literary series The True Stories of Mankind’s Religions, go to page :

Introduction / Structure and Content

I hope you enjoy reading this article, which is available in its entirety below:

Deciphering the ideographic figure of the black bull in the Lascaux cave



To conclude this first salvo in the deciphering of rock figures, it is, I believe, most fitting to end with the one that is, in my opinion, the most symbolic major figure (from every point of view!) in order to :

  • Illustrate the deciphering power of proto-cuneiform and hieroglyphic rock figures
  • Illustrate how Egyptian hieroglyphic is intimately interwoven with sumerian
  • Encompassing and summarizing much of what we have just seen regarding the signified of the figures examined.
  • Connecting the prehistoric world to the religious nerve centers of Sumer and Egypt.

Here it is again for the record:

Crotos website: Wikimedia Commons

Yes, this figure is mind-blowing from all three points of view, probably more so than any other we’ve seen.

I even prefer it:

  • to the first “ada-am(a)” auroch on the Lascaux unicorn panel
  • to bison kuš or guš and donkey aneš / kiš
  • to the black deer and its rectangle ñiš / ñeš / kiš / keš of dots kiša


Is it because it’s the biggest bull?

Is it because it’s the most emblematic work of Lascaux, and not just Lascaux, but of all Palaeolithic painted caves?

Is it because it’s the most monumental work?

Is it because its blackness stands out against the shiny background?

Is it because it sits enthroned, isolated, set apart, alone, unique, a figure among all figures?

Yes and No.

Yes, for all the reasons mentioned.

But not because the most mind-boggling thing of all is not the bull itself, but this sign, this simple sign in front of its snout:

This sign that screams at us, that screams at us something even more eloquent, more telling than anything we’ve seen so far.


Assignment to prehistoric signs


This sign is in fact the correspondent of the following prehistoric signs that we find listed as their category IX, that of chevrons (and more specifically flaviforms) in the work of Sauvet / Wodarczyk :

We saw them in the summary of their work under :

  1. Chevrons, point up (a) and point down (b); zigzags (c)



Structuring the analysis



What is this symbol shouting at us?

Let’s hear it now.

To understand this, I’ll start with hieroglyphics, and then move on to Sumerian.



Hieroglyphic egyptian:



This prehistoric symbol is clearly identifiable as the prehistoric counterpart of the [1] hieroglyph. (This sign is classified in the hieroglyphic categorization of tufts and twigs. We’ll see that it’s more accurately a bush, and so I’ll call it the bush sign).


Une Première translittération: Hn


What is one of the four transliterations of this sign?

(I invite you to reread the footnote below).


We have already seen in the analysis of the black deer (lulim) that Hn is the root logogram of Hnmmt “humanity[2] (and also : that the meanings of the Egyptian pair Hn “human” / Hnmmt “humanity” are identical to the Sumerian pair lu or lú “human, adult man” / lú-u18 “humanity”; that the hieroglyphic hnn designating the deer[3] can be associated with Hn…)

So, even if we don’t know from our analysis of the black stag that Hn refers to the primordial, divinized human, this Hn sign already designates, at the very least, a human.


A second transliteration: s


If you still doubt for a moment that like refers to a human, then bear in mind that the word “man” “s“, which is written with the hieroglyph for “sitting man”: s man, can also be written with the single vertical line s or with the branch sign like this: s ; both being signs strictly equivalent to “man”.

But it’s obviously not just any man, since Faulkner’s lexicon for s man indicates that it may also refer to a man of high rank[4] . This ties in with the fact that Hnw, in which is used as a phonetic determinative, “Hn” is a commander[5] , i.e. a ruler.


a third transliteration: is


A human, a man of high rank, a leader…

Is that all?

Note then that plays a determinative role in is (iz) to be light (by weight and figuratively), hence the fact that it also serves as the phonetic determinative is.

Now see in what other words it is found and what it tells us: 

For starters, is means “old, ancient”[6]

is with the Old Kingdom variant iz means, among other things, a tomb[7]

isw means “ancient”[8] , iswt means “ancient times”.

It’s clear, then, that this is a human from ancient times, an ancestor, who was considered a ruler and potentially in the grave.

What we’ve just said helps us to understand one of the meanings of Isis’ name: the old-old, the ancient-ancient, in other words the oldest or most ancient, the primordial mother. Which also helps us understand that the branch also refers to a great divinity, potentially Isis’ great father and husband, her husband Osiris. Of course, you’re going to tell me that Isis in Egyptian hieroglyphics is Ast [9] , but we’ll see in detail in Volume 2 how As and Is are interlinked and equivalent Egyptian logograms.

The question is: Who, of all ancestors, if not the primordial ancestor, best fulfills these functions?

Understandably, the fact that he was the first of mankind led his descendants to believe that he was also their leader, their natural ruler, and that he naturally became their great deity upon his death.

In fact, it was to link themselves to the first ruler, the primordial father who became father of the gods, or to the first ruler, the primordial mother, this primordial mother who became mother-goddess, and also, more generically, to link themselves to the “ancients” (isw) of ancient times (iswty), to link up with the “elders” (isw) of ancient times (iswty), several Egyptian kings of the new empire chose the epithet iswty [10] as a way of asserting that they were the heirs (iswt) of their spiritual and temporal heritage (iwat), to legitimize and establish their secular authority by placing themselves in their lineage.

But is that all?


a fourth transliteration: “i”, “A”, the single stroke


No. As if that weren’t enough, we’re told it’s also used in “cryptic writing…” to transliterate the “i” and mean “I, me”.  

This sign is therefore the strict equivalent of the single stroke [11]    that we saw in the analysis of III the sign above the mouth of the first auroch on the unicorn panel.

As a reminder, this is used to designate “the one, the only” as in the wa hieroglyph “one; the unique, the only”; it is the substitute for human-figure hieroglyphs so as not to have to pronounce them for superstitious fear of the magical power of the name of the great divinity; the i, note in Egyptian, is interchangeable with A, and since a means “father” in Sumerian, the elder sister language of Egyptian[12] , this “i” also symbolically and culturally conveys the meaning of “father”.

The thus designates as a simple line a man, a father, deified under the great main deity, the one god, the only god.


with triple line association


Having said this, having understood that is an equivalent of the simple stroke, we also understand that because the sign of the bush is triple, made of three branches, it also carries the same meanings conveyed by the sign III which, as we saw in the analysis of the auroch, is a plural of majesty to designate the father of fathers, the primordial ancestor, the first human, who was divinized in the symbolic animal form of the auroch, as the father of the gods, the greatest divinity, whose name is unpronounceable by his devotees for fear of the terrible magical consequences that the mere utterance of his name could cause them.


The bush and the broom


Once we’ve understood this, it’s then important to understand that bush and broom are strictly equivalent symbols.

So their common senses will also enlighten us.

The proof that bush and broom are equivalent symbols lies in the fact that both are meanings of the hieroglyph transliterated kAkA, whose determinative, as you can see, is the sign [13] .

So this sign does indeed designate a bush or a broom.

What does this tell us?

Two things, because kAkA wasn’t chosen by chance!


Sumerian meaning of kAkA


The ancestor-generator


kAkA is a contraction of the Sumerian ku-aka, two associated and intertwined logograms with which we are now familiar.

For the record, as we saw in the analysis of ku from the Pindal cave fish ku-a, or in the paragraph on equivalence À = aka = ugu the procréateur géniteur of the Marsoulas bison fresco, ku-aka refers to a biological procreator ancestor, male or female.

In other words, with kAkA, we’re dealing with the procreative, primordial ancestor, the ancestor of humanity.


excrements, manure


This word itself carries another meaning which will no doubt make you smile, but which responds to an unfortunately “profound” cultic logic (hm…sorry…).

In subsequent books, we’ll explain the reasoning behind the symbolism of excrement and its associated symbols (putrefaction, decay, fermentation, manure, worm, fungus, urine).

We’ll look at the various reasons why the primordial father has been represented as excrement, manure.

You will then understand much better the true archaic origin of the ancient Greek κακά, kaká “bad things, from kakos, evil and which is the origin of our French caca[14] .

You will understand why, by way of an example derived from comparative mythological analysis, we find in Africa, in the Guinean and Senegambian group, among the Agnis of Indénie and Sanwi, the god Kaka-Guié, an ox-headed god whose charge is to lead the souls of the dead to the local supreme god, Nyamié[15] .

We’ve already seen in this book, under the analysis of the branch (še8) and the stag (lulim / analysis of “lum”), that the father of the gods is associated with manure.

Let’s just say here that one of the aspects of its representation as manure, as excrement, stems from one of the teachings of the world of the original false universal religion, namely that the decomposition of the body is a necessary preliminary stage to the regeneration of the being, as it is considered to be the receptacle of an individual energy that can be reused to, following a precise purification/sublimation process, lead to the regeneration of the dead being.


the other broom sign


Notice something else, too:

The Egyptian broom sign is the sign

It has a determinative role in sk , which means “to wipe, to sweep up, but also to knock down[16] “.

In the analysis of the šu hand sign, we find the idea of cutting down that I’ve already mentioned as being associated with the primordial father under the woodcutter.

Also note that sk is a homophone of skA, which means to plough, and also refers to a plough ox[17] .

We then find the skA we have in the analysis of the auroch, which etymologically and symbolically means an incarnation of the soul of a being kA, human, of a man, a man of high rank “s [18] and who belongs to the Egyptians (gw, ngAw, iwA ; kA, skA), which together convey the idea of the soul of the grandfather, the old man worshipped as the great divinity marked with the plural of majesty and embodied in an ox-bull. This is because these logograms are equivalent to the Sumerian logograms gu / ku (a-ka / ugu), which refer to the same idea.

We also find the imagery of the ploughman that we saw in the analysis of the rectangle associated with the black stag, ñiš or ñeš, one of whose meanings is a plough and by ñiš-šè an animal assigned to the plough. We have already seen, albeit partially, that the ox is an animal associated with the father of the gods. In the following books, we’ll also see in greater detail the reason for this association with the symbolism of the ploughman, which we’ll have the opportunity to detail, the ploughman being man, the plough being his penis and the fertile field being the fertile woman, the furrow being the entrance to her womb.

This will help us to understand that it’s certainly no coincidence that these two notions are attached to the bush/sweep, since it is an avatar symbol of the great divinity, just as the ox can be.

With what I’ve said about Isis and the bush/brush, perhaps you’re also beginning to glimpse the true archaic mystique behind the depiction of the old Indo-European witch woman on her broom, and why the broom is a substitute for the goat (which here we’ve seen a bit under the analysis of the Y dar, tar)? [19]

But that’s just a detail, and for the time being, let’s ask ourselves:

Is there anything else that proves that in Egyptian thought the broom bush could be an incarnation of the great divinity?

Although all that’s been said above is more than enough.


The symbol associated with the bush / the thicket


Well, another symbol associated with the very clear and instructive bush is that of the thicket.

Let’s see why:


In Egyptian


A thicket is said Ax [20]

Here is the hieroglyph:

Its prominent triple branches are reminiscent of …

But what are the meanings of its homonyms?

Axt is, among other things, a slaughterhouse[21] .

This brings us back to the idea of slaughter mentioned above.

Ax can mean a being who becomes a spirit, glorious, splendid, beneficial, famous, of renown[22] .

AxAx expresses the idea of greening and also stars[23] .

Now, as we shall see, the new tree and the star are both symbols of the born-again being, regenerated and divinized after passing through death. We’ve already touched on the meaning of maš the star in this book (under the analysis of the cross in sign XIII).

Axw refers to God’s power as sunlight.[24]

Axt refers in particular to the goddess Akhet (the final t is generally the mark of the feminine in Egyptian or of a noun), as well as to the king’s tomb and the horizon[25] , and bearing in mind that the inhabitant of the horizon Axty is an epithet of the deity[26]

… What can we conclude from this except that Ax is not just a simple thicket, but that in symbolism it serves to represent the great divinity who has passed through the grave before being reborn as a great divinity under the sun or the star.


In Sumerian


Then look at what the Sumerian transliteration of the Egyptian Ax: aĥ, means.

We shall see that this only goes to demonstrate the almost permanent intertwining of Egyptian and Sumerian.


an imperfect and mortal Being


The Sumerian also carries dark, negative meanings, as àĥ also means “to dry, to desiccate”, and its equivalent designate notably malice[27] , uĥ3 is notably “a vermin[28] “.

We find again the notion of evil evoked by kAkA, as well as the notion of putrefaction, decay and manure that we’ve already encountered several times in association with the father of the gods.

This doesn’t surprise us, since it represents him in his imperfect, mortal human condition, the prelude to his transformation into divinity.


the primordial father and father of the gods under the sun, the Star


Moreover, also carries this meaning.

For the proto-cuneiform ideographic sign of àĥ, its namesake, is ud.

We have seen in this book, in the analysis of the ossecaille, that udu or ud symbolizes the sun ud, u4[29] and through it, the great divinity, and in the analysis of the star sign maš that ud/u, like aš, designates the primordial father, the progenitor ancestor, the ruler, the divinized father under the sun.

That’s why àĥ means to sparkle, to shine[30] .


The father linked to the arm


But is it really about the father?

Well, it’s also particularly interesting to note that the Sumerian identifies this thicket, associating it with the father.

Indeed, by áĥi, aĥ5, á means notably an arm, a side[31] and also power[32] .

Note that á is given as the equivalent of by aĥ5.

Please note that this á = arm equivalence is in total harmony with Egyptian, since it is the hieroglyph for the arm that transliterates into “a”, hence the fact that a also means “arm” in Egyptian[33] .

Sumerian and Egyptian therefore agree that á = a = arm

But who is á in Sumerian?

Its homophone a, as we know, refers in particular to the father.

The thicket sign is used to evoke the father and his power, his arm[34] .


The thicket and the broom bush


Finally, notice also a very interesting thing that demonstrates that the sign of the thicket is equivalent to the sign of the broom bush and explains the major reasons why the father is provided with a broom:

The fact is that to know the meanings of àĥ, uĥ the Halloran lexicon refers us to laĥ, luĥ[35] .

And what do they mean?

luĥ, làĥ means “to clean, wash, sweep” being according to the lexicon the contraction of the, “freshness of youth (abundance…)[36] ” and ĥe/ĥi “to mix, blend”[37] .

We’re back with our famous broom…

But then, what’s it good for? In what sense does the father sweep up?

We could limit ourselves to saying that this sweep represents the washing, cleansing and purification operation (which, as we shall see, includes the mixing and grinding stage) carried out to transform the decomposed dead into divinity.

But it refers more deeply to something much darker:

Indeed, what does ĥe/ĥi “mixing, blending” the “freshness of youth” mean?

This expression is actually related to :

  • ĥa-lam which means “to ruin, to destroy”, literally “ĥa” he/she who mixes, destroys “lam” the abundance, freshness and beauty of youth…in the underworld, for lam means like the abundance, but lam also designates the underworld, the underworld
  • arala or arali” also refer to the underworld and literally mean “to pulverize” “ĥara/àra” the “beauty and freshness of youth” “la“.

So we understand that this broom is the emblem of the father of the gods as the god of the underworld who crushes and destroys all his descendants, promising them the same regeneration he experienced.



Interim report


At this point, we have understood the Egyptian meaning of the sign of the bush , its equivalence in meaning with the broom, with the thicket, to embody the primordial man who, after experiencing decomposition and death, became the father of the sky gods under the star and the sun, and who also remains as the god of the underworld.

But a fundamental question remains:

Where does this Egyptian meaning of bush, broom or thicket come from?

For what initial reason were they associated with the primordial father, the great divinity of heaven and hell?

For one simple reason, absolutely extraordinary, as simple as it is extraordinary, and with colossal implications:



Sumerian: bush in Sumerian


To fully understand the scope of what is about to be said, I need to remind you of a few absolutely essential points:


Preliminary reminder of the meanings and double meanings of the word “father”  


Throughout this book, we have seen that father is said in Sumerian in several ways:

We have seen that it is said “a[38] “, “a-a[39] “, “pab, pap, pa4[40] ” and also “ada, ad[41].

To this list we should add ab-ba[42] (borrowed from Akkadian, a Semitic language and corresponding to the future Aramaic/Hebrew אבא transliterated “ʼabbāʼ” “abba” “father” or “papa” and from ancient Greek ἀββᾶ, abba[43] ), but in this book we haven’t had the use of it.

Then I simply ask you to please reread the notes referenced below and take note of the multiple double meanings of the word father?

Are there many of them?

We find the canal, the flood, the cry, all symbols we’ve already seen used to indirectly allude to and symbolize it.


Having first seen the Egyptian meaning of the bush, let’s turn to the Sumerian one…


The bush in Sumerian


a Father’s namesake


It’s only factual that the Sumerian father by “ada, ad[44]has as homophones the logograms “ adda4, ád“.

But what do adda4 and ád mean?

Let’s let the Halloran lexicon speak again[45] :

adda4, ád mean in the nominative a shrub, a thorny bush !

There are no other 36 homonyms of ada, ad.


Here, I’ll give them to you, and we’ll have ample opportunity to see that they’re all equally closely associated with the primordial father, and why.

Other homonymous senses of ada, ad are by adda2, ad3,6 a carcass, body, skeleton and by adda4, ád a lame, paralyzed person.

There are no others.

In view of what we’ve seen about the symbolism of the Egyptian bush, do you think it’s still a coincidence?

But that’s not all.

There’s one even stronger from the point of view of statistical nullity!


A namesake of kish


For, as we said, kiš is far from being very common in Sumerian, as its occurrences are very rare, being found in only 4 words: kiša, kiši, kišib, kišik

And what do three of its four words – kiša2, kiši16,17 and kišik – mean?

Bingooo…yes, you guessed it:

A thorny bush![46]


kišik’s ideogram


If you’re wondering what the ideogram for kišik the thorny bush is in proto-cuneiform, here it is:

It corresponds to sign 15B in the comparative table in Appendix[47] .

It corresponds to the signs that archaeologists call appendix quadrilaterals with the following examples taken respectively from essays by :

Sauvet / Wodarczik : and André Leroi-Gourhan :


You’ll find them in the comparative table alongside another proto-cuneiform sign we’ll be looking at in volume 6 on the cavern.


The next time you see a “quadrilateral with appendages”, remember that you’re probably looking at a schematic representation of a thorn bush, an allegory representing the primordial father.


The u.gir ideogram


You will have noticed that the proto-Cuneiform ideogram given for Ñiš kiša2, kiši16,17, kišik2 is Ú.ÑÍR.

Generally speaking, U is either the sign of the grids [48] or or or

Either a variant of the [49] sign or the [50]

As for ñir, the sign of the fish[51] : or or

or the signs of the cow / mare[52] : or or or or

or the “tectiforme” sign[53] :

So, if you see two signs combining one of the “u” signs and one of the ñir signs, tell yourself that you’re looking at the logograms u-ñir, which means a thorn bush, the symbol representing the primordial father.



Conclusion on the black bull



If this explains the symbolism of the thorn bush as being, in mythology, as we shall see[54] a symbol of the father of the gods, it is, in relation to what we are explaining here, absolutely fundamental:

Let’s take a close look at this bewildering symbolic linkage:

ada, ad (the father) = adda4, ád (the thorny bush) = adda4, ád (le buisson épineux) = kiša2 (the thorny bush) = kiš

and vice versa…

Clearly, the addition of “a” to kiša, the thorny bush, adds to kiš the notion of father “a[55] also equivalent to ada, ad.

Honestly, what percentage of chances are there that two rare and distinct words ada, ad (father) and kiš(a) could have two rare and distinct homonyms with strictly identical meanings and thus refer to the divinized primordial father and his dominion under the thorn bush?

Objectively, none.

And with this emblematic black bull, it’s once again perfectly incontestable that the name kiš(a) is one of the major titles of the father of the gods, the deified primordial man.

What are the consequences?

They are very, very heavy:








[1]Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: ;

2nd sign in the tufts and branches category

Phonetic value Hn e.g. in Hnw container, Hnskt lock of hair.

from i reeds (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 9) rarely used (“cryptic writing”) for i je, moi d’où d’où also for (the hieroglyph of the seated man who designates the man who is the ideogram of s man) which can then be written as s man

Role of determinative in is être léger (de poids et au sens figuré) (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 39)

Hence phonetic determinative is for example: is Old Empire variant iz tomb, chamber

iswt ancient times

[2] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: Hnmmt solar people of Heliopolis; humanity (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 213)

[3] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French Lexicon: hnn deer, fallow deer be attentive to, take into consideration; trust; give assent to; approve; coax; antonym of HDn be reluctant, disapprove (Neo-Egyptian) (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 196)

[4] Cf Volume 4 / Lexique hiéroglyphes-français: s (z) door bolt ornamental container sheaf of arrows or man; someone; nobody, no one, nil; man of rank (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 255)

[5] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French Lexicon: Hnw commanders container, jar, bowl; possession, movable goods barque Henou, sacred barque of Sokar coasts (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 211)

[6] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: is old, ancient (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 36)

[7] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: is (iz) and its variants iz isy iswy mean: tomb, syringe; Chamber, Council Palace (idiom.); workplace, workshop, office (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 35)

[8] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: isw the ancients reeds compensation, salary (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 36)

[9] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French Lexicon: Ast Isis / (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 6)

[10] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: iswty (iswty, iswt, iwat?) representative (iswt); heritage (iwat); epithet of several N.E. kings. (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 36)

[11] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: The Z1 sign :

Sources:; Gardiner p. 534, Z1

It is used as a determinative in l’un, l’unique, le seul: wa un; l’unique, le seul see also wai être tout seul (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 70).

This sign was used (like and ° ) to replace human figures, considered magically dangerous; e.g. on M.E. sarcophagi.

Rarely, extensions of this usage appear in the use of as a 1st pers. sing. suffix . “i” je, moi; perhaps also in the fairly common writing of to replace s or or man

[12] Later in this book, and in Part II from God to Adam, we’ll see evidence of the linguistic entanglement between Sumerian and the language of hieroglyphs.

[13] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: kAkA bush, broom (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 349)

[14] From Latin cacare. From Ancient Greek κακά, kaká (“bad things”) which is the neuter plural of κακός, kakos, adjective meaning “bad, evil”.

[15] AFRICA / Guinean band and Senegalese band: “… ” Kaka-Guié, ox-headed god whose task is to lead the souls of the dead to the supreme god, Nyamié (F.GUIRAND, 1996, p. 582)

[16] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: sk wipe, sweep; erase; clean abattre (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 307)

[17] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: skA cultivate, plow plow ox harvests (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 307)

[18] Cf Volume 4 / Lexique hiéroglyphes-français: s (z) door bolt ornamental container sheaf of arrows or man; someone; person, none, nil; man of rank (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 255)

[19] Like the broomstick, the billy goat is also the mount used by witches on their way to the Sabbath. (CHEVALIER-GHEEBRANT, Dictionnaire des Symboles, 2005, pp. 138-140)

[20] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French Lexicon: Ax stuffed with papyrus / (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 4)

[21] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French lexicon: Axout or Axt chambre close (?) (store, warehouse?) butcher’s, slaughterhouse / (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 5)

[22] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French Lexicon: Ax Spirit State of mind To be, to become a spirit; glorious, splendid; beneficial, useful, profitable; fame, renown / (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 5)

[23] Cf Volume 4 / Lexique hiéroglyphes-français : AxAx verdir, reverdir ; étoiles / (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 6)

[24] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French Lexicon: Axw power (of god…) mastery or Axw sunlight / (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 5)

[25] Cf Volume 4 / Lexique hiéroglyphes-français: Axt Akhet (the goddess);   arable land; serpent uræus; eye (of a god) see irt eye (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 31) ; flame ; horizon, king’s tomb / (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 5)

[26] Cf Volume 4 / Hieroglyphic-French Lexicon: Axty inhabitant of the horizon; residing on the horizon (idiom.), an epithet of god / (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 5)

[27]úĥ ; uĥ, aĥ : phlegm; spittle; slaver, froth; paste; venom; malice (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 5) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French lexicon: úĥ; uĥ, aĥ = phlegm; saliva; slaver, froth; paste; venom, malice

[28],3 : lice, louse; nit; flea; moth; insect, parasite, vermin (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 5) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French lexicon: ,3 = louse, nit, flea, moth, insect, parasite, vermin

[29] ud, u4 = n., sun; light; day; time; weather; storm (demon) ; prep., when; since (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 5) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French Lexicon = u4 : (cf., ud). ud, u4 = nominative: sun, light, time; weather, storm (demon)

[30] laĥ, àĥ[UD]; uĥ: to dry up; to dry out; to sparkle, shine (cf., luĥ, làĥ). adj., dry (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 29) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French Lexicon: laĥ, àĥ[UD]; = to dry, to dry out, to sparkle, to shine; (cf., luĥ, làĥ).

[31] In the next book, we’ll develop the meaning of the word side, which is very important and recurrent in mythology, but for now let’s stop very briefly at the symbolism of the arm.

[32] áĥi, 5, á : arm; wing; horn; side; strength; work performance; wages; moment (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 18) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French lexicon: áĥi, aĥ5, á  = arm, wing, horn, side, strength; work performance; wages; moment

[33] Cf Volume 4 / Lexique hiéroglyphes-français: a arm, hand; region, province; condition, state; article, part; track, trace awy awi Duel awy (both hands, both arms, etc.) guarantee, certificate; record, register dike, embankment wooden bar, tiller bowl, bowl interpreter, truchement; variant of aw interpreter, truchement (drogman) (Faulkner, reed.2017, p. 45)

[34] The symbol of the arm is polysymbolic, and power is not its only meaning, but we’ll see that too in the next book.

[35] àĥ ; uĥ = cf laĥ (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 5) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French lexicon: àĥ ; uĥ = voir laĥ

[36] la : abundance, luxury, wealth; youthful freshness and beauty; bliss, happiness; wish, desire (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 12) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French lexicon: la = abundance, luxury, wealth; youthful freshness and beauty; bliss, happiness; wish, desire

[37] luĥ, làĥ : to be clean, fresh; to clean; to wash; to sweep (la, ‘youthful freshness’, + ĥe, ‘to mix’) (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 29) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French Lexicon: luĥ, làĥ = to be clean, fresh; to clean; to wash; to sweep (la, ‘youthful freshness’ + ĥe ‘to mix’).

[38] a, e4= noun. : water; watercourse, canal; seminal fluid; offspring; father; tears; flood (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 3) with translation in Volume 4 / Sumerian-French Lexicon: a, e4= nominative = water, watercourse, canal, seminal fluid, offspring, father, tears, flood. 

[39] a-a : father (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 71) Volume 4 / Sumerian-French syllabary: a-a : father

[40] pab, pap, pa4: father; brother; man; leader (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 22) ; Cf Volume 4 / Sumerian-French lexicon: pab, pap, pa4 = father, brother, man, leader

[41] ada, ad : n., father; shout; song. v., to balk. (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 18) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French Lexicon = ada, ad = nominative: father, shout, song / verb: to balk

[42] ab-ba = father; elder; ancestor (Akk. loanword) (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 76) ; Tome 4 / Sumerian-French lexicon = ab-ba = father; elder; ancestor (Akkadian loanword)

[43] From Ancient Greek ἀββᾶ, abba, from Aramaic אבא / ʼabbāʼ, (“father”).

[44] ada, ad : n., father; shout; song. v., to balk. (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 18) ; Volume 4 / Sumerian-French Lexicon = ada, ad = nominative: father, shout, song / verb: to balk

[45] (A.Halloran, 1999, p. 18) adda2, ad3,6 = carcass, body, skeleton; Adda4, ád = to send, to go away; shrub, thorny bush.

[46] Ñiš kiša2, kiši16,17 = cf. kišik2 (Ú.ÑÍR) = a thorny bush (A.Halloran, 1999, pp. 47, 61) Volume 4 / Sumerian Lexicon: Ñiš kiša2, kiši16,17 = cf., kišik2 ((ideogram) Ú.ÑÍR) = a thorny bush (the “Ñiš” in the upper right of Ñiškiša2 is the Sumerian determinative for “tree, wood”, so “ kiša2” is the object thorny bush).

[47] 15B (CNIL, 1996?, p. 111)

[48] (CNIL, 1996?, p. 210)

[49] (CNIL, 1996?, pp. 210-217)

[50] (CNIL, 1996?, p. 218)

[51] (CNIL, 1996?, pp. 78, 79)

[52] (CNIL, 1996?, pp. 79, 80)

[53] (CNIL, 1996?, p. 81)

[54] Go to Volume 3 / the symbolism of the thorny bush, the jujube tree.

[55] In the book to follow, we’ll look at Isis and see how this name is also a dedication to the mother goddess.



Proto-sumerian :

CNIL. Full list of proto-cuneiform signs

& Falkenstein, A. (1936). Archaische Texte aus Uruk. :

Sumerian :

A.Halloran, J. [1999]. Sumerian Lexicon 3.0.

Heroglyphic :

Faulkner. [réed .2017]. Concise dictionary of Middle Egyptian.

Hiero ( (Hiero – Pierre Besson)

Demotic :

The Demotic Dictionary of the Institute for the Study of Ancient Cultures of the University of Chicago | Institute for the Study of Ancient Cultures (

Hieroglyphic Hittite :

Mnamon / Antiche scritture del Mediterraneo Guida critica alle risorse elettroniche / Luvio geroglifico – 1300 a.C. (ca.) – 600 a.C.

Archaeology :

Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1958). Le symbolisme des grands signes dans l’art pariétal paléolithique. Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française Année 55-7-8 pp. 384-398.

G.& S Sauvet et André Wlodarczyk (1977) : Essai de sémiologie préhistorique (pour une théorie des premiers signes de l’homme). Bulletin de la société préhistorique française / année 1977 / E&T 47-2 / p.545-558

Science of Symbols :

Chevalier-Gheebrant [2005]. Dictionnaire des Symboles. Paris: Robert Laffont.

Mythologies :

Guirand, J. [1996]. Mythes et Mythologie. Paris ; Larousse

Link between Chaldean and the Catholic religion :

A.Hislop. [s .d.]. Les deux Babylones.



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